合山| 托克逊| 泉州| 乌苏| 咸宁| 乐昌| 滦南| 乌恰| 海南| 开封县| 灌南| 温泉| 庄浪| 江城| 友好| 嫩江| 南昌市| 博湖| 明水| 潜山| 连州| 山西| 贺州| 鹤岗| 资源| 兴海| 双柏| 邹平| 铁岭市| 塔什库尔干| 武定| 什邡| 鹰潭| 三江| 英山| 房县| 二连浩特| 成县| 东海| 固安| 夷陵| 龙川| 巴青| 郸城| 柏乡| 南昌市| 巫山| 山亭| 鹰潭| 遂川| 吉首| 南召| 苏州| 托里| 西青| 衢州| 祁东| 鄂尔多斯| 阳江| 南票| 津市| 施甸| 开阳| 夏邑| 甘德| 马鞍山| 通化市| 砚山| 嘉黎| 柯坪| 岐山| 岚县| 宜秀| 凭祥| 鄂伦春自治旗| 漯河| 茶陵| 舒兰| 岑巩| 河北| 邹平| 石柱| 永和| 带岭| 东光| 岳阳县| 宜黄| 猇亭| 姜堰| 临沂| 六安| 崇阳| 花莲| 峨山| 正安| 闻喜| 纳雍| 岳普湖| 博野| 榆树| 南安| 肥西| 呼兰| 湄潭| 衡水| 灵台| 阜南| 罗平| 南漳| 石河子| 石家庄| 枣强| 西昌| 孟津| 桓仁| 民勤| 伊宁县| 江永| 红安| 法库| 米林| 梅里斯| 岑巩| 惠来| 湘东| 城阳| 麻城| 石家庄| 江宁| 东至| 丹寨| 召陵| 汤原| 射洪| 元坝| 徐闻| 湖口| 苏尼特左旗| 鲅鱼圈| 荔浦| 峨边| 九龙坡| 班戈| 项城| 黑河| 襄汾| 门源| 常宁| 蕉岭| 召陵| 阿拉尔| 武邑| 博鳌| 惠东| 汝南| 兴业| 宁河| 团风| 勃利| 古蔺| 塔什库尔干| 新巴尔虎左旗| 泽库| 阿克陶| 和县| 普安| 得荣| 桦甸| 丰润| 阿拉善左旗| 密山| 且末| 寿宁| 武夷山| 斗门| 渑池| 衡东| 江苏| 上高| 商河| 博野| 霍山| 文山| 都兰| 灵山| 大兴| 台州| 白河| 金沙| 城阳| 壶关| 东至| 垣曲| 隆昌| 叶城| 金湖| 仁布| 台前| 石龙| 黑龙江| 哈尔滨| 头屯河| 武乡| 鹿泉| 清涧| 芜湖市| 巨野| 义马| 大荔| 东兴| 喀喇沁旗| 三原| 番禺| 合水| 竹山| 连平| 治多| 兰考| 邛崃| 正安| 安福| 梅县| 四子王旗| 东莞| 新荣| 兰坪| 永吉| 大连| 邛崃| 正安| 陆丰| 湘东| 大方| 漳平| 湘阴| 临城| 怀来| 松江| 洪雅| 卫辉| 定襄| 平乐| 福泉| 长乐| 赣县| 察哈尔右翼后旗| 加查| 青龙| 东川| 岱山| 乐陵| 头屯河| 蕲春| 方城| 东西湖| 岚山| 开原| 叙永| 樟树| 常宁| 西乡| 平陆| 靖州|

英雄血脉 锻造铁军——“叶挺独立团”纪事(上)

2019-05-21 08:38 来源:好大夫在线

  英雄血脉 锻造铁军——“叶挺独立团”纪事(上)

  Chinasreformandopening-uphasnotonlyyieldedtopresults,butalsoprovidedvaluableexperiencetotheworld,,withthetheme"Reformandopening-upholdsthekeytothedestinyofcontemporaryChina,",whereShenzhenislocated,isthebirthplaceofthepolicy,andtheShenzhenSpecialEconomicZoneisoneofitslandmarkachievements,saidLiXi,secretaryoftheCommunistPartyofChina(CPC),ChairmanofPakistansSenateForeignAffairsCommittee,visitedShenzhen40yearsagoasajournalist.",ithasbecomeaninternationalmetropoliswithnearly1,000buildingsexceedingaheightof100meters,",vicepresidentoftheSenateofBolivia,saidChinaiminatingruralpovertyby2020,andBolivia,whichsharessimilargoalsintermsofpovertyreduction,iswillingtoadoptChina,chairmanoftheRepublicanProposalPartyintheEntreRiosProvinceofArgentina,saidhewasveryimpressedbyChinasdevelopmentundertheleadershipoftheCPC,,China,Chinasopeninghasmadeitsachievementsvisibletoothercountries,sachievementsinthepast40yearsthroughreformandopening-upistrulyremarkable,andtheyhaveansweredmanyquestions,saidSergeyZheleznyak,deputysecretaryoftheGeneralCounciloftheUnitedRussiaParty.  FilmmakerandhonorarydegreerecipientWongKarWaiarrivesforthe367thCommencementExercisesatHarvardUniversityinCambridge,Massachusetts,,May24,2018.(Photo/Agencies)FilmmakerandhonorarydegreerecipientWongKarWaiarrivesforthe367thCommencementExercisesatHarvardUniversityinCambridge,Massachusetts,,May24,2018.(Photo/Agencies)Seated(fromleft),DrewFaust,JohnLewis;standing(fromleft)GeorgeEmanuelLewis,TwylaTharp,HarveyVernonFineberg,RitaDove,RicardoLagos,SallieWatson(Penny)Chisholm,andWongKarWai.(Photo/Agencies)HonorarydegreerecipientandpoetRitaDovetalksduringthe367thCommencementExercisesatHarvardUniversityinCambridge,Massachusetts,,May24,2018.(Photo/Agencies)Studentsattendthe367thCommencementExercisesatHarvardUniversityinCambridge,Massachusetts,,May24,2018.(Photo/Agencies)StudentsfromtheGraduateSchoolofEducationcheerastheyreceivetheirdegreesduringthe367thCommencementExercisesatHarvardUniversityinCambridge,Massachusetts,,May24,2018.(Photo/Agencies)

GiantpandaMengMenggavebirthtotwinfemalecubsattheChengduResearchBaseofGiantPandaBreedinginSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonMay23,2018.(Photo/ChengduResearchBaseofGiantPandaBreeding)GiantpandaMengMenggavebirthtotwinfemalecubsattheChengduResearchBaseofGiantPandaBreedinginSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonMay23,2018.(Photo/ChengduResearchBaseofGiantPandaBreeding)GiantpandaMengMenggavebirthtotwinfemalecubsattheChengduResearchBaseofGiantPandaBreedinginSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonMay23,2018.(Photo/ChengduResearchBaseofGiantPandaBreeding)GiantpandaMengMenggavebirthtotwinfemalecubsattheChengduResearchBaseofGiantPandaBreedinginSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonMay23,2018.(Photo/ChengduResearchBaseofGiantPandaBreeding)目前,首个地下云图网监测站和传感设备,已在汶川县映秀地震台部署完成。

  ClamsareseenonabankoftheSonghuaRiverinHarbinCity,NortheastChina’sHeilongjiangProvince,May24,ntin11years.(Photo/IC)ClamsareseenonabankoftheSonghuaRiverinHarbinCity,NortheastChina’sHeilongjiangProvince,May24,ntin11years.(Photo/IC)ClamsareseenonabankoftheSonghuaRiverinHarbinCity,NortheastChina’sHeilongjiangProvince,May24,ntin11years.(Photo/IC)ClamsareseenonabankoftheSonghuaRiverinHarbinCity,NortheastChina’sHeilongjiangProvince,May24,ntin11years.(Photo/IC)CitiesacrossChinaareimplementingpreferentialpoliciestoattractforeigntalentin2018,withtheeasterncityofHangzhouoffering100millionyuan($),capitalofEastChinasZhejiangProvince,tostartabusinessthatfitsthedevelopmentofthecitysindustrycanreceivefundsrangingfrom200,000to5millionyuan,igntalentsstayinthecity,inclpital,rityandsupporttoforeigntalent,obalstrategywiththeBeltandRoadinitiative,thecountryneedsmoreforeigntalentthanever,LinXinqi,aresearchfellowattheNationalAcademyofDevelopmentandStrategyinRenminUniversityofChina,tighteningimmigrationpoliciesamidtheanti-globalizationtrend,,NorthChinasHebeiProvincehasvowedtooffer10millionyuaninresearchfundinganda2millionyuansettling-inallowancetoacademiciansindevelopedcountriesandscholarswhohavebeengiveninternationalawards,,YunnanProvincewilladoptanewvisapolicytheconomiesfurtherdevelopamidChinasindustrytransferprocess,theirmomentumtoattractforeigntalentmightsurpassthatinfirst-tiercities,localdevelopmentconditionsinsteadofturningitintoaviciouscompetition,hinainOctober2017saidthattalentisastrategicresourceforChinaasitaimstoachievenationalrejuvenationandstayaheadofinternationalcompetition.  

  《意见》提出了四个方面的改革举措,分别是:分类健全人才评价标准improvingtalentevaluationstandardsindifferentfields改进和创新人才评价方式upgradingandinnovativingtalentevaluationmethods加快推进重点领域人才评价改革acceleratingreformoftalentevaluationinkeyfields健全完善人才评价管理服务制度improvingthemanagementandservicesystemoftalentevaluation  PhototakenonMay21,2018showsapaifang,achastitymemorialarch,fromtheQingDynasty(1644-1911)foundataconstructionsiteinBinzhouCity,EastChina’,paifangweregiventowidowswhoremainedunmarriedtilldeath,,accompaniedbysixstonelionsatthefrontandrear.(Photo/VCG)PhototakenonMay21,2018showsapaifang,achastitymemorialarch,fromtheQingDynasty(1644-1911)foundataconstructionsiteinBinzhouCity,EastChina’,paifangweregiventowidowswhoremainedunmarriedtilldeath,,accompaniedbysixstonelionsatthefrontandrear.(Photo/VCG)PhototakenonMay21,2018showsapaifang,achastitymemorialarch,fromtheQingDynasty(1644-1911)foundataconstructionsiteinBinzhouCity,EastChina’,paifangweregiventowidowswhoremainedunmarriedtilldeath,,accompaniedbysixstonelionsatthefrontandrear.(Photo/VCG)PhototakenonMay21,2018showsapaifang,achastitymemorialarch,fromtheQingDynasty(1644-1911)foundataconstructionsiteinBinzhouCity,EastChina’,paifangweregiventowidowswhoremainedunmarriedtilldeath,,accompaniedbysixstonelionsatthefrontandrear.(Photo/VCG)

English-LanguageNewsWebEditorRequirements::Aminimumofabachelor’sdegreeatanaccreditedcollegeoruniversitywithamajorinjournalism,English,economics,internationalpolitics,,:Haveathoroughunderstandingandappreciationfortheroleofjournalismandaccurate,ftWord,AdobePhotoshop,Dreamweaver,:Previousjoborinternshipexperienceinan:Responsibleforconductingnewsinterviews,andcompiling,editingandrevisingnewsmanuscriptsfromothersourcesforwebsitenews,dupdates,andproducingspecialnewspackages,aswellasothe,:’sdegreeatanaccreditedcollegeoruniversitywithamajorinjournalism,English,economics,internationalpolitics,andaccurate,,:-Thejobisfull-time.-rewritingandcopy-editingstorieswrittenbystaffandfromothermediaresources;-writingoredittingheadlines,readingprovesandcontributingideasinstoryselectionandlayoutandsoon;-helpingproductionanddevelopmentofothereditorialmaterials,whichincludewritingstories,columns,reviewsandrecordings

  PhototakenwithaninfraredcamerashowsawildgiantpandaintheBaishuiRiverNationalNatureReserveinPengzhouCity,SouthwestChina’,localauthoritieshaveincreasedeffortstoprotectbiodiversity,fightagainstillegalhunting,andimprovethelocalecologicalsystem.(Photo/VCG)PhototakenwithaninfraredcamerashowsawildgiantpandaintheBaishuiRiverNationalNatureReserveinPengzhouCity,SouthwestChina’,localauthoritieshaveincreasedeffortstoprotectbiodiversity,fightagainstillegalhunting,andimprovethelocalecologicalsystem.(Photo/VCG)PhototakenwithaninfraredcamerashowsawildgiantpandaintheBaishuiRiverNationalNatureReserveinPengzhouCity,SouthwestChina’,localauthoritieshaveincreasedeffortstoprotectbiodiversity,fightagainstillegalhunting,andimprovethelocalecologicalsystem.(Photo/VCG)ResearchersworkintheBaishuiRiverNationalNatureReserveinPengzhouCity,SouthwestChina’,localauthoritieshaveincreasedeffortstoprotectbiodiversity,fightagainstillegalhunting,andimprovethelocalecologicalsystem.(Photo/VCG)

  KensingtonPalacesaidthenameofthebabywouldbeannouncedinduecoursewhileaformalnoticeofthebirthhadbeenpostedontheforecourtofBuckinghamPalace.肯辛顿宫表示,宝宝的名字将适时公布。AsleepingcontestisheldinSeoulForestinSouthKorea,May27,,500peopleappliedtojointhecontestforitsthirdedition,withthelongestsleeperthewinner.(Photo/VCG)AsleepingcontestisheldinSeoulForestinSouthKorea,May27,,500peopleappliedtojointhecontestforitsthirdedition,withthelongestsleeperthewinner.(Photo/VCG)AsleepingcontestisheldinSeoulForestinSouthKorea,May27,,500peopleappliedtojointhecontestforitsthirdedition,withthelongestsleeperthewinner.(Photo/VCG)

  (CNS),astate-levelnewsagencysponsoredandestablishedbyChinesejournalistsandrenownedoverseasChineseexpertsonOctober1,(),,,includingin-depthcoverage,featurestoriesandvisualcontent,withtopicssuchascurrentevents,art,lifestyle,(CNS)isnotonlyastate-levelnewsagencyspreadingnewsworldwide,butalsoaninternationalnewsagencywithsubscribersinTaiwan,HongKongandMacao,,formervicechairmanoftheStandingCommitteeoftheNationalPeoplesCongress,,therewereothermajorsponsorsandbuilders,suchasJinZhonghua,HuYuzhi,,awell-knownexpertoninternationalissues,,CNSwastheInternationalNewsService,,adatabaseofinforma(includingwritings,photosandspecialarticles)andamodernmethodofreporting(mainlythroughinternet,videosandSMS)providedtooverse,,HongKongandMacao,aswellasbranchesorreportstationsinTokyo,Bangkok,KualaLumpur,NewYork,Washington,LosAngeles,SanFrancisco,Vancouver,London,Paris,,andnewsreleasecentershavebeenestablishedinBeijing,,multi-levelandmulti-functionnewsreleasesystem,CNSprovidesallkindsofnewsandinformation,’,,1999,theheadquartersofCNSlauncheditsofficialwebsite,namedChinanews().ChinanewsisconsideredoneofChina’smostimportantonlinenewssources.

  POMWonderfulAntioxidantSuperTeakicksoffMemorialDayweekendhangingoutwithLolatheSlothatthefirst-everSlothBarreclassatBarreBelleonThursday,May24,2018inLosAngeles.(Photo/Agencies)POMWonderfulAntioxidantSuperTeakicksoffMemorialDayweekendhangingoutwithLolatheSlothatthefirst-everSlothBarreclassatBarreBelleonThursday,May24,2018inLosAngeles.(Photo/Agencies)ActressAliLandrykicksoffMemorialDayweekendhangingoutwithLolatheSlothatPOMWonderfulAntioxidantSuperTeasfirst-everSlothBarreclassatBarreBelleonThursday,May24,2018inLosAngeles.(Photo/Agencies)AshleyIaconetti,realitystar,kicksoffMemorialDayweekendhangingoutwithLolatheSlothatPOMWonderfulAntioxidantSuperTeasfirst-everSlothBarreclassatBarreBelleonThursday,May24,2018inLosAngeles.(Photo/Agencies)ActressAliLandry(right)kicksoffMemorialDayweekendhangingoutwithLolatheSlothatPOMWonderfulAntioxidantSuperTeasfirst-everSlothBarreclassatBarreBelleonThursday,May24,2018inLosAngeles.(Photo/Agencies)POMWonderfulAntioxidantSuperTeakicksoffMemorialDayweekendhangingoutwithLolatheSlothatthefirst-everSlothBarreclassatBarreBelleonThursday,May24,2018inLosAngeles.(Photo/Agencies),ltariffson$50billionworthofimportsfromChinathatfollowedaSection301investigationlaunchedlastAugustintoChinasintellectualpropertypoliciesandpractices.",""unilateralisticandprotectionistactionhasgravelyvisinterest,,evenlesstheinterestoftheglobaleconomy.""TheChinesesidewillresorttotheWTOdisputesettlementmecha"Theembassysaid",withsenseandlong-termpictureinmind,refrainsfromgoingfurtherdownthewrongpath".TheUSTRsaiditsproposedlistofproductsisbasedonextensiveinteragencyeconomicanalysisandwouldtargetproductsthatbenefitfromChinaace,informationandcommunicationstechnology,,suchasaircraftseats,militaryrifles,machineparts,instruments,medicalproducts,videomonitors,erNavarrobothsaidrecentlythattheSection301tariffswillstem,whileNavarrosaidChinawas"goingtodominateeverysingleemergingindustryofthefuture,andthereforeyoureconomiesarentgoingtohaveafuture".TheMadeinChina2025plan,unveiledin2015,highlighted10sectorsinadvancingChinasmodernmanufacturingpower—informationtechnology,high-endmachineryandrobotics,aerospace,marineequipmentandships,advancedrailtransport,new-energyvehicles,electricpower,agriculturalmachinery,tegyisanopenandfairenvironmentwithequaltreatmentofdomesticandoverseasbusinesses."Chinawillnotforceanytechnologytransferfromanyforeigncompanyandwillenhanceeffortstoprotectintellectualpropertyrightsandseverelycrackdownoninfringement,andChinawelcomesmoregloballycompetitivebusinessestosharetheChinagrowthopportunities,"sproposedlistwillundergofurtherreviewinapublicnoticeandcommentperiod,,theUSTRwillissueafinaldeterminationontheproductssubjecttotheadditionalduties.","saidEdwardAlden,","hesaid,repeatedlymentioningabilateraltradedeficitof$,however,was$375billion,,and$,,whichwentintoeffectinFebruary,-Chinatradeimbalanceismisl,whichreached$saggregatesalesbalance,thebilateralimbalancewasonly$.TrumpalsorepeatedonTuesdaywhathehassaidbefore."WehelpedrebuildChina,"hetoldthemediainameetingwithleadersofseveralBalticnations."TheChinesepeoplerebuiltChina,notoutsiders,"saidYukonHuang,aseniorfe,HuangsaidChinesedidthisbydrawingontheirexceptionallyhighsavingsratestofu,Chinareliedrelativelylittleonforeignaidbutmoreonforeigndirectinvestment(FDI)facilitatedbytheAsianChinesediaspora.",sinceonlyabout1to2percentofAmericasFDIoverthepasttwodecadeswenttoChina,"Huangsaid.

  SouthKoreaandtheDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKorea(DPRK)onThursdaystartedgeneral-levelmilitarytalksatthebordervillageofPanmunjomtoeasemilitarytensions,,thefirstofitskindinover10years,(0100GMT)inTongilgak,,asenior-levelof,composedoffivedelegates,omthathewilldiscusswithhisDPRKcounterpartissuesontheeasingofinter-Koreanmilitaryteeinter-Koreanmilitarycommunicationschannel,theregularly-heldmilitarytalksbetwee

  PhototakenonMay26,2018showsanightviewoftheQianhaiareainQingdao,acoastalcityineastChinasShandongProvincewhichwillhostasummitoftheShanghaiCooperationOrganizationnextmonth.(Xinhua/WangHaibin)PhototakenonMay26,2018showsanightviewoftheQianhaiareainQingdao,acoastalcityineastChinasShandongProvincewhichwillhostasummitoftheShanghaiCooperationOrganizationnextmonth.(Xinhua/WangHaibin)PhototakenonMay26,2018showsanightviewoftheQianhaiareainQingdao,acoastalcityineastChinasShandongProvincewhichwillhostasummitoftheShanghaiCooperationOrganizationnextmonth.(Xinhua/WangHaibin)PhototakenonMay26,2018showsanightviewoftheQianhaiareainQingdao,acoastalcityineastChinasShandongProvincewhichwillhostasummitoftheShanghaiCooperationOrganizationnextmonth.(Xinhua/WangHaibin)PhototakenonMay26,2018showsanightviewoftheQianhaiareainQingdao,acoastalcityineastChinasShandongProvincewhichwillhostasummitoftheShanghaiCooperationOrganizationnextmonth.(Xinhua/WangHaibin)

  Thefour-month-oldfemalegiantpandacub,borntomotherLiangLiangandfatherXingXing,ondisplaytothepublicforthefirsttimeattheNationalZooinKualaLumpur,Malaysia,May26,2018.(Photo/Xinhua)Thefour-month-oldfemalegiantpandacub,borntomotherLiangLiangandfatherXingXing,ondisplaytothepublicforthefirsttimeattheNationalZooinKualaLumpur,Malaysia,May26,2018.(Photo/Xinhua)Thefour-month-oldfemalegiantpandacub,borntomotherLiangLiangandfatherXingXing,ondisplaytothepublicforthefirsttimeattheNationalZooinKualaLumpur,Malaysia,May26,2018.(Photo/Xinhua)Thefour-month-oldfemalegiantpandacub,borntomotherLiangLiangandfatherXingXing,ondisplaytothepublicforthefirsttimeattheNationalZooinKualaLumpur,Malaysia,May26,2018.(Photo/Xinhua)Thefour-month-oldfemalegiantpandacub,borntomotherLiangLiangandfatherXingXing,ondisplaytothepublicforthefirsttimeattheNationalZooinKualaLumpur,Malaysia,May26,2018.(Photo/Xinhua)ChinaiswillingtopushforwardconstructivedialogueandimproveitsrelationshipwiththeVatican,anofficialwiththecountry,confirmedXiaoHong,formerspokespersonoftheStateAdministrationforReligiousAffairswhichwasrecentlymergedintotheUnitedFrontWorkDepartmentoftheCommunistPartyofChinaCentralCommittee."Wehaveactivelyengagedinprofounddiscussionsaboutcertainissues,"canandhascontinuedtomakeefforts,,formerdeputyheadoftheadministration,addedatthesameconferencethatthetwosideshavesmoothandeffectivecommunicationchannels,throughwhichissuescanbediscussed."WealsohopetheVaticanwillmoveinthesamedirectiontowardChina,"hesaid.  

  

  英雄血脉 锻造铁军——“叶挺独立团”纪事(上)

 
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李宇嘉:解决“类住宅”关键在于土地市场化改革

2019-05-21 06:56:00 来源: 每日经济新闻
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(原标题:李宇嘉:解决“类住宅”关键在于土地市场化改革)

李宇嘉

五一小长假之前,上海市发布了《关于加强本市经营性用地出让管理的若干规定》,要求办公用地不得建设公寓式办公,商业用地未经约定不得建设酒店式公寓等“类住宅”;土地出让合同要明确商办持有比例和年限,持有期内不得转让;经营性物业要明确长期持有的比例;社区或住宅配套商业要长期持有。

这并不是一个孤例。此前在3月份,北京和广州就曾发布打击“类住宅”的一揽子政策,从销售对象(仅限企业)、设计报建(限制最小分割单位)、暂停贷款、停止项目审批等几个死角,全面堵死“类住宅”的生存空间。

“类住宅”缘何泛滥,地方政府为何要果断出手呢?

首先,商业办公(有其城市外围)租或售,都存在资金回笼周期长、利润不高的问题,商办用地建“类住宅”,对开发商而言是利润最大化和尽快收回投资的选择。

其次,互联网冲击实体商业,大城市产业升级(现代服务业贡献率超过70%),商办空间需求明显下降,商办项目很难招商,土地也很难卖个好价钱。

再次,住宅项目要配给公共服务设施,教育、医疗类设施还要独立供地。对于空间逼仄的北上广等大城市来说,住宅项目对政府和开发企业的压力较大。而“类住宅”项目不仅不需要配建公共设施,还享受住宅溢价。

最后,近年来一线城市人口涌入,住宅需求旺盛。房价“上台阶”,限购政策强化后,不限购和价格较低的“类住宅”就应运而生。2016年,北京和上海类住宅销售均价分别为每平方米29770元和25700元,仅相当于同期商品住房均价的72%和56%。由此,“类住宅”火爆就不难理解。

尽管“类住宅”客观上有生存空间,也补充了住宅需求,但其最大的问题是违反了土地用途管制、城市分区规划,造成城市生活和生产功能混杂,人为降低用地效率,并导致“城市病”更加突出。目前,“类住宅”主要集中的城市外围,本来基本规划为商业办公的区域,却集中了大量居住人口,加重了配套压力。区域内小商小贩、私立学校医院散点式无序分布,从外围到中心区的各条道路和轨交、换乘站点拥挤不堪。另外,“类住宅”泛滥导致京沪等大城市人口和空间“紧约束”政策失效。

近年来,京沪等城市在人口、土地供应上,均采取“减量发展”的政策。但是,“类住宅”以其不限购、低价格优势,成为外来人口“扎根”京沪的选择,而人口增加也倒逼城市空间扩张。

出现“类住宅”乱象,其中一个直接原因是基于政绩的规划。基于区域形象和短期GDP及税收政绩考核的考量,城市各区都有出让商办用地、建设商业办公中心甚至CBD的激励,但外围商办招商困难、经营困难。笔者调研,京沪深城市外围区域,商办项目除一楼底商餐饮、儿童娱乐还算景气外,二楼及以上空置现象比较严重。

监管不严是另一个直接原因。住宅销售能更快地赚钱、更快回笼资金、配套压力更少,更易于让土地卖个好价钱,部分地方政府对此也是“睁一只眼闭一只眼”。于是,开发商在规划报建和审批阶段便为今后切割改造留下方便之门,而批后用途监管大多形同虚设。

不过,“类住宅”乱象真正的根源还在于用地。大城市产业结构升级很快、人口迁入很快,工业和传统商办用地的单位空间产出效率下降,用地供应理应向现代服务业及需求更大的住宅倾斜。

目前,包括一线城市在内,我国大城市40%~50%的存量用地为工商业用地,住宅用地不足20%,而国际大城市刚好相反。原则上,土地所有者要追求更高产出和更高地租回报,工商和传统商办用地就会被现代服务业、居住用地所替代。同时,土地用途周期(最少40年)一般大于产业周期。互联网冲击下,产业由盛转衰或被消灭的周期也缩短了,客观上存在着调整土地功能的需要。但在我国,用地功能转换并无这样的市场化倒逼机制。

对此,各地需要对用地功能进行调整,对于涉及区域规划的调整须经政府审批程序,召开听证会,重签土地出让合同并备案;另一方面,用地功能调整涉及企业转制,转作住宅要补缴土地出让金,增加公共配套支出,但原用地主体很多是国企,转制困难、无力补缴地价,很多企业往往还希望“借地生财”,导致功能转换停滞。

于是,城市外围就批出了大量工商业用地,而原有工业、商办也难以盘活,导致住宅用地紧缩,也由于外围工商业“不经济”而导致“类住宅”泛滥。

因此,解决“类住宅”,一方面在于刚性的存量土地盘活机制,以地均产值、就业人口为刚性指标,建立划拨类工业用地和园区腾退红线,触及红线的工业用地和园区一律收回;另一方面,应加快推进土地要素市场化改革,减少地方政府基于短期经济和业绩考虑的用地行为;最后,要加快推进制造业去产能,腾出无效占地。(作者为深圳市房地产研究中心研究员)

王旭杰 本文来源:每日经济新闻 责任编辑:王旭杰_NO5107

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